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With that clause, the slaveholding states gave up two-fifths of their slave population in federal apportionment, giving a margin of victory to John Adams in his election defeating Thomas Jefferson.

Wilentz concludes that it is a myth to say that the Electoral College was a pro-slavery ploy. In , the presidential selection was thrown into the House of Representatives, and John Quincy Adams was chosen over Andrew Jackson, even though Jackson had a larger popular vote plurality.

Then Andrew Jackson won in , but that second campaign would also have been lost if the count in the Electoral College were by citizen-only apportionment alone.

Scholars conclude that in the race, Jackson benefited materially from the Three-fifths clause by providing his margin of victory.

The impact of the Three-fifths clause in both Jefferson's first and Jackson's first presidential elections was significant because each of them launched sustained Congressional party majorities over several Congresses, as well as presidential party eras.

Besides the Constitutional slavery provisions prohibiting Congress from regulating foreign or domestic slave trade before , and a positive requirement for states to return escaped "persons held to service", [58] legal scholar Akhil Reed Amar argues that the Electoral College was originally advocated by slave-holders in an additional effort to defend slavery.

In the Congressional apportionment provided in the text of the Constitution with its Three-Fifths Compromise estimate, "Virginia emerged as the big winner [with] more than a quarter of the [votes] needed to win an election in the first round [for Washington's first presidential election in ].

Supporters of the Electoral College have provided many counterarguments to the charges that it defended slavery. Abraham Lincoln , the president who helped abolish slavery, won an Electoral College majority in despite winning less than 40 percent of the national popular vote.

Dave Benner argues that although the additional population of slave states from the Three-Fifths Compromise allowed Jefferson to defeat Adams in , Jefferson's margin of victory would have been wider had the entire slave population been counted.

Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment allows for a state's representation in the House of Representatives to be reduced if a state unconstitutionally denies people the right to vote.

The reduction is in keeping with the proportion of people denied a vote. This amendment refers to "the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States" among other elections, the only place in the Constitution mentioning electors being selected by popular vote.

On May 8, , during a debate on the Fourteenth Amendment, Thaddeus Stevens , the leader of the Republicans in the House of Representatives, delivered a speech on the amendment's intent.

Regarding Section 2, he said: [65]. The second section I consider the most important in the article. It fixes the basis of representation in Congress.

If any State shall exclude any of her adult male citizens from the elective franchise, or abridge that right, she shall forfeit her right to representation in the same proportion.

The effect of this provision will be either to compel the States to grant universal suffrage or so shear them of their power as to keep them forever in a hopeless minority in the national Government, both legislative and executive.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing [ sic ] the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Since , federal law has provided that the electors in all the states and, since , in the District of Columbia meet "on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their appointment" to vote for president and vice president.

Under Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, all elected and appointed federal officials are prohibited from being electors. After the vote, each state then sends a certified record of their electoral votes to Congress.

The votes of the electors are opened during a joint session of Congress , held in the first week of January, and read aloud by the incumbent vice president, acting in his capacity as President of the Senate.

If any person received an absolute majority of electoral votes that person is declared the winner. Even though the aggregate national popular vote is calculated by state officials, media organizations, and the Federal Election Commission , the people only indirectly elect the president.

The president and vice president of the United States are elected by the Electoral College, which consists of electors from the fifty states and Washington, D.

Electors are selected state-by-state, as determined by the laws of each state. Since the election of , [71] most states have appointed their electors winner-take-all , based on the statewide popular vote on Election Day.

Maine and Nebraska are the only exceptions as both states use the congressional district method, Maine since and in Nebraska since The slate of electors that represents the winning ticket in a state or Washington, D.

Electors are nominated by a party and pledged to vote for their party's candidate. Many states require an elector to vote for the candidate to which the elector is pledged, and most electors do regardless, but some " faithless electors " have voted for other candidates or refrained from voting.

A candidate must receive an absolute majority of electoral votes currently to win the presidency or the vice presidency. If no candidate receives a majority in the election for president or vice president, the election is determined via a contingency procedure established by the Twelfth Amendment.

In such a situation, the House chooses one of the top three presidential electoral vote-winners as the president, while the Senate chooses one of the top two vice presidential electoral vote-winners as vice president.

A state's number of electors equals the number of representatives plus two electors for the senators the state has in the United States Congress. Based on the census, each representative represented on average , individuals.

Under the Twenty-third Amendment , Washington, D. Because the least populous state Wyoming , according to the census has three electors, D. Even if D.

Based on its population per electoral vote, D. Currently, there are electors; based on representatives, senators from the fifty states and three electors from Washington, D.

The custom of allowing recognized political parties to select a slate of prospective electors developed early. In contemporary practice, each presidential-vice presidential ticket has an associated slate of potential electors.

Then on Election Day, the voters select a ticket and thereby select the associated electors. Candidates for elector are nominated by state chapters of nationally oriented political parties in the months prior to Election Day.

In some states, the electors are nominated by voters in primaries, the same way other presidential candidates are nominated.

In some states, such as Oklahoma , Virginia , and North Carolina , electors are nominated in party conventions.

In Pennsylvania , the campaign committee of each candidate names their respective electoral college candidates an attempt to discourage faithless electors.

Varying by state, electors may also be elected by state legislatures or appointed by the parties themselves. Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution requires each state legislature to determine how electors for the state are to be chosen, but it disqualifies any person holding a federal office, either elected or appointed, from being an elector.

However, the Congress may remove this disqualification by a two-thirds vote in each House. All states currently choose presidential electors by popular vote.

The current system of choosing electors is called the "short ballot". This process has been normalized to the point that the names of the electors appear on the ballot in only eight states: Rhode Island, Tennessee, Louisiana, Arizona, Idaho, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota.

Since , all but two states have followed the winner takes all method of allocating electors by which every person named on the slate for the ticket winning the statewide popular vote are named as presidential electors.

The Supreme Court previously upheld the power for a state to choose electors on the basis of congressional districts, holding that states possess plenary power to decide how electors are appointed in McPherson v.

Blacker , U. The Tuesday following the first Monday in November has been fixed as the day for holding federal elections, called the Election Day.

The Certificates of Ascertainment are mandated to carry the state seal and the signature of the governor or mayor of D.

The Electoral College never meets as one body. Electors meet in their respective state capitals electors for the District of Columbia meet within the District on the Monday after the second Wednesday in December, at which time they cast their electoral votes on separate ballots for president and vice president.

Although procedures in each state vary slightly, the electors generally follow a similar series of steps, and the Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the procedures the states follow.

The meeting is opened by the election certification official — often that state's secretary of state or equivalent — who reads the Certificate of Ascertainment.

This document sets forth who was chosen to cast the electoral votes. The attendance of the electors is taken and any vacancies are noted in writing.

The next step is the selection of a president or chairman of the meeting, sometimes also with a vice chairman. The electors sometimes choose a secretary, often not himself an elector, to take the minutes of the meeting.

In many states, political officials give short speeches at this point in the proceedings. When the time for balloting arrives, the electors choose one or two people to act as tellers.

Some states provide for the placing in nomination of a candidate to receive the electoral votes the candidate for president of the political party of the electors.

Each elector submits a written ballot with the name of a candidate for president. Ballot formats vary between the states: in New Jersey for example, the electors cast ballots by checking the name of the candidate on a pre-printed card; in North Carolina , the electors write the name of the candidate on a blank card.

The tellers count the ballots and announce the result. The next step is the casting of the vote for vice president, which follows a similar pattern.

Each state's electors must complete six Certificates of Vote. Each Certificate of Vote must be signed by all of the electors and a Certificate of Ascertainment must be attached to each of the Certificates of Vote.

Each Certificate of Vote must include the names of those who received an electoral vote for either the office of president or of vice president.

The electors certify the Certificates of Vote and copies of the Certificates are then sent in the following fashion: [90].

A staff member of the President of the Senate collects the Certificates of Vote as they arrive and prepares them for the joint session of the Congress.

The Certificates are arranged — unopened — in alphabetical order and placed in two special mahogany boxes. Alabama through Missouri including the District of Columbia are placed in one box and Montana through Wyoming are placed in the other box.

An elector votes for each office, but at least one of these votes president or vice president must be cast for a person who is not a resident of the same state as that elector.

Thirty-three states plus the District of Columbia have laws against faithless electors, [93] which were first enforced after the election, where ten electors voted or attempted to vote contrary to their pledges.

Faithless electors have never changed the outcome of a U. Altogether, 23, electors have taken part in the Electoral College as of the election; only electors have cast votes for someone other than their party's nominee.

Sherman died. While faithless electors have never changed the outcome of any presidential election, there are two occasions where the vice presidential race outcome has been influenced by faithless electors:.

Some constitutional scholars argued that state restrictions would be struck down if challenged based on Article II and the Twelfth Amendment.

In Ray v. Blair , U. As stated in the ruling, electors are acting as a functionary of the state, not the federal government. In Chiafalo v.

Washington , U. Baca , U. The Twelfth Amendment mandates Congress assemble in joint session to count the electoral votes and declare the winners of the election.

House of Representatives. The vice president and the Speaker of the House sit at the podium, with the vice president in the seat of the Speaker of the House.

Senate pages bring in the two mahogany boxes containing each state's certified vote and place them on tables in front of the senators and representatives.

Each house appoints two tellers to count the vote normally one member of each political party. Relevant portions of the certificate of vote are read for each state, in alphabetical order.

Members of Congress can object to any state's vote count, provided objection is presented in writing and is signed by at least one member of each house of Congress.

An objection supported by at least one senator and one representative will be followed by the suspension of the joint session and by separate debates and votes in each House of Congress; after both Houses deliberate on the objection, the joint session is resumed.

A state's certificate of vote can be rejected only if both Houses of Congress vote to accept the objection, meaning the votes from the State in question are not counted.

Individual votes can also be rejected, and are also not counted. In , all of the votes from Louisiana and Tennessee were rejected, and in , all of the votes from Arkansas and Louisiana plus three of the eleven electoral votes from Georgia were rejected.

Objections to the electoral vote count are rarely raised, although it did occur during the vote count in after the close presidential election between Governor George W.

Gore, who as vice president was required to preside over his own Electoral College defeat by five electoral votes , denied the objections, all of which were raised by only several representatives and would have favored his candidacy, after no senators would agree to jointly object.

Objections were again raised in the vote count of the elections, and on that occasion the document was presented by one representative and one senator.

Although the joint session was suspended, the objections were quickly disposed of and rejected by both Houses of Congress. If there are no objections or all objections are overruled, the presiding officer simply includes a state's votes, as declared in the certificate of vote, in the official tally.

After the certificates from all states are read and the respective votes are counted, the presiding officer simply announces the final result of the vote and, provided the required absolute majority of votes was achieved, declares the names of the persons elected president and vice president.

This announcement concludes the joint session and formalizes the recognition of the president-elect and of the vice president-elect.

The senators then depart from the House Chamber. The final tally is printed in the Senate and House journals.

The Twelfth Amendment requires the House of Representatives to go into session immediately to vote for a president if no candidate for president receives a majority of the electoral votes since , of the electoral votes.

In this event, the House of Representatives is limited to choosing from among the three candidates who received the most electoral votes for president.

Each state delegation votes en bloc — each delegation having a single vote; the District of Columbia does not get to vote. A candidate must receive an absolute majority of state delegation votes i.

Additionally, delegations from at least two thirds of all the states must be present for voting to take place.

The House continues balloting until it elects a president. If no candidate for vice president receives an absolute majority of electoral votes, then the Senate must go into session to elect a vice president.

The Senate is limited to choosing from the two candidates who received the most electoral votes for vice president.

Normally this would mean two candidates, one less than the number of candidates available in the House vote.

However, the text is written in such a way that all candidates with the most and second most electoral votes are eligible for the Senate election — this number could theoretically be larger than two.

The Senate votes in the normal manner in this case i. However, two-thirds of the senators must be present for voting to take place.

Additionally, the Twelfth Amendment states a "majority of the whole number" of senators currently 51 of is necessary for election.

The only time the Senate chose the vice president was in In that instance, the Senate adopted an alphabetical roll call and voting aloud.

The rules further stated, "[I]f a majority of the number of senators shall vote for either the said Richard M. Johnson or Francis Granger , he shall be declared by the presiding officer of the Senate constitutionally elected Vice President of the United States"; the Senate chose Johnson.

Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment specifies if the House of Representatives has not chosen a president-elect in time for the inauguration noon EST on January 20 , then the vice president-elect becomes acting president until the House selects a president.

Under the Presidential Succession Act of , the Speaker of the House would become acting president until either the House selects a president or the Senate selects a vice president.

Neither of these situations has ever occurred. Before the advent of the short ballot in the early 20th century, as described above, the most common means of electing the presidential electors was through the general ticket.

The general ticket is quite similar to the current system and is often confused with it. In the general ticket, voters cast ballots for individuals running for presidential elector while in the short ballot, voters cast ballots for an entire slate of electors.

In the general ticket, the state canvass would report the number of votes cast for each candidate for elector, a complicated process in states like New York with multiple positions to fill.

Both the general ticket and the short ballot are often considered at-large or winner-takes-all voting.

The short ballot was adopted by the various states at different times; it was adopted for use by North Carolina and Ohio in Alabama was still using the general ticket as late as and was one of the last states to switch to the short ballot.

The question of the extent to which state constitutions may constrain the legislature's choice of a method of choosing electors has been touched on in two U.

Supreme Court cases. In McPherson v. In Bush v. On the other hand, three dissenting justices in Bush v. Gore , U. In the earliest presidential elections, state legislative choice was the most common method of choosing electors.

A majority of the state legislatures selected presidential electors in both 9 of 15 and 10 of 16 , and half of them did so in In that election, Andrew Jackson lost in spite of having plurality of the popular vote and the number of electoral votes representing them, [] but six state legislatures chose electors that overturned that result.

Some state legislatures simply chose electors, while other states used a hybrid method in which state legislatures chose from a group of electors elected by popular vote.

Legislative appointment was brandished as a possibility in the election. Had the recount continued, the Florida legislature was prepared to appoint the Republican slate of electors to avoid missing the federal safe-harbor deadline for choosing electors.

The Constitution gives each state legislature the power to decide how its state's electors are chosen [] and it can be easier and cheaper for a state legislature to simply appoint a slate of electors than to create a legislative framework for holding elections to determine the electors.

As noted above, the two situations in which legislative choice has been used since the Civil War have both been because there was not enough time or money to prepare for an election.

However, appointment by state legislature can have negative consequences: bicameral legislatures can deadlock more easily than the electorate.

This is precisely what happened to New York in when the legislature failed to appoint any electors. Another method used early in U.

By this method, voters in each district would cast their ballots for the electors they supported and the winner in each district would become the elector.

This was similar to how states are currently separated into congressional districts. However, the difference stems from the fact that every state always had two more electoral districts than congressional districts.

As with congressional districts, moreover, this method is vulnerable to gerrymandering. In a proportional system, electors would be selected in proportion to the votes cast for their candidate or party, rather than being selected by the statewide plurality vote.

There are two versions of the congressional district method: one has been implemented in Maine and Nebraska; another has been proposed in Virginia.

Under the implemented congressional district method, the electoral votes go to the winner of a plurality of the popular vote winner within each of the states' congressional districts ; the statewide popular vote winner receives two additional electoral votes.

While this method may result in a more proportional allocation of electors, this is not necessarily the case. For example, in , George H.

In , a different version of the congressional district method was proposed in Virginia. This version would distribute Virginia's electoral votes based on the popular vote winner within each of Virginia's congressional districts; the two statewide electoral votes would be awarded based on which candidate won the most congressional districts, rather than on who won Virginia's statewide popular vote.

The congressional district method can more easily be implemented than other alternatives to the winner-takes-all method, in view of major party resistance to relatively enabling third parties under the proportional method.

State legislation is sufficient to use this method. Because candidates have an incentive to campaign in competitive districts, with a district plan, candidates have an incentive to actively campaign in over thirty states versus seven "swing" states.

Of the 43 multi-district states whose electoral votes could be affected by the congressional district method, only Maine 4 EV and Nebraska 5 EV currently utilize this allocation method.

Nebraska has used the congressional district method since the election of The congressional district method allows a state the chance to split its electoral votes between multiple candidates.

Prior to , neither Maine nor Nebraska had ever split their electoral votes. In , Republicans in Pennsylvania, who controlled both houses of the legislature as well as the governorship, put forward a plan to change the state's winner-takes-all system to a congressional district method system.

Pennsylvania had voted for the Democratic candidate in the five previous presidential elections, so some saw this as an attempt to take away Democratic electoral votes.

The district plan would have awarded him 11 of its 21 electoral votes, a Arguments between proponents and opponents of the current electoral system include four separate but related topics: indirect election, disproportionate voting power by some states, the winner-takes-all distribution method as chosen by 48 of the 50 states , and federalism.

Arguments against the Electoral College in common discussion focus mostly on the allocation of the voting power among the states. Gary Bugh's research of congressional debates over proposed constitutional amendments to abolish the Electoral College reveals reform opponents have often appealed to a traditional republican version of representation, whereas reform advocates have tended to reference a more democratic view.

The elections of , , , and produced an Electoral College winner who did not receive at least a plurality of the nationwide popular vote.

When no candidate received a majority of electoral votes in , the election was decided by the House of Representatives and so could be considered distinct from the latter four elections in which all of the states had popular selection of electors.

Opponents of the Electoral College claim such outcomes do not logically follow the normative concept of how a democratic system should function.

One view is the Electoral College violates the principle of political equality, since presidential elections are not decided by the one-person one-vote principle.

Supporters of the Electoral College argue candidates must build a popular base that is geographically broader and more diverse in voter interests than either a simple national plurality or majority.

Neither is this feature attributable to having intermediate elections of presidents, caused instead by the winner-takes-all method of allocating each state's slate of electors.

Allocation of electors in proportion to the state's popular vote could reduce this effect. Senate, and for statewide allocation of electoral votes, do not ignore voters in less populated areas.

Elections where the winning candidate loses the national popular vote typically result when the winner builds the requisite configuration of states and thus captures their electoral votes by small margins, but the losing candidate secures large voter margins in the remaining states.

In this case, the very large margins secured by the losing candidate in the other states would aggregate to a plurality of the ballots cast nationally.

However, commentators question the legitimacy of this national popular vote. They point out that the national popular vote observed under the Electoral College system does not reflect the popular vote observed under a National Popular Vote system, as each electoral institution produces different incentives for, and strategy choices by, presidential campaigns.

Conversely, the institutional structure of a national popular vote system would encourage candidates to pursue voter turnout wherever votes could be found, even in "safe" states they are already expected to win, and in "safe" states they have no hope of winning.

According to this criticism, the Electoral College encourages political campaigners to focus on a few so-called "swing states" while ignoring the rest of the country.

Populous states in which pre-election poll results show no clear favorite are inundated with campaign visits, saturation television advertising, get-out-the-vote efforts by party organizers, and debates, while "four out of five" voters in the national election are "absolutely ignored", according to one assessment.

In contrast, states with large populations such as California , Texas , and New York , have in recent elections been considered "safe" for a particular party — Democratic for California and New York and Republican for Texas — and therefore campaigns spend less time and money there.

Many small states are also considered to be "safe" for one of the two political parties and are also generally ignored by campaigners: of the 13 smallest states, six are reliably Democratic, six are reliably Republican, and only New Hampshire is considered as a swing state, according to critic George C.

Edwards III in Except in closely fought swing states, voter turnout is largely insignificant due to entrenched political party domination in most states.

The Electoral College decreases the advantage a political party or campaign might gain for encouraging voters to turn out, except in those swing states.

The differences in turnout between swing states and non-swing states under the current electoral college system suggest that replacing the Electoral College with direct election by popular vote would likely increase turnout and participation significantly.

According to this criticism, the electoral college reduces elections to a mere count of electors for a particular state, and, as a result, it obscures any voting problems within a particular state.

For example, if a particular state blocks some groups from voting, perhaps by voter suppression methods such as imposing reading tests, poll taxes, registration requirements, or legally disfranchising specific minority groups, then voting inside that state would be reduced, but as the state's electoral count would be the same, disenfranchisement has no effect on the overall electoral tally.

Critics contend that such disenfranchisement is partially obscured by the Electoral College. A related argument is the Electoral College may have a dampening effect on voter turnout: there is no incentive for states to reach out to more of its citizens to include them in elections because the state's electoral count remains fixed in any event.

According to this view, if elections were by popular vote, then states would be motivated to include more citizens in elections since the state would then have more political clout nationally.

Critics contend the electoral college system insulates states from negative publicity as well as possible federal penalties for disenfranching subgroups of citizens.

Legal scholars Akhil Amar and Vikram Amar have argued that the original Electoral College compromise was enacted partially because it enabled Southern states to disenfranchise their slave populations.

They noted that James Madison believed the question of counting slaves had presented a serious challenge, but that "the substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections.

The founders' system also encouraged the continued disfranchisement of women. In a direct national election system, any state that gave women the vote would automatically have doubled its national clout.

Under the Electoral College, however, a state had no such incentive to increase the franchise; as with slaves, what mattered was how many women lived in a state, not how many were empowered By contrast, a well-designed direct election system could spur states to get out the vote.

Constitutionally, only U. Virgin Islands , American Samoa , and Guam , do not have a vote in presidential elections. Researchers have variously attempted to measure which states' voters have the greatest impact in such an indirect election.

Each state gets a minimum of three electoral votes, regardless of population, which gives low-population states a disproportionate number of electors per capita.

Countervailing analyses which do take into consideration the sizes of the electoral voting blocs, such as the Banzhaf power index BPI model based on probability theory lead to very different conclusions about voters relative power.

Banzhaf III who developed the Banzhaf power index determined that a voter in the state of New York had, on average, 3. These types of institutions act independently, maintaining their own endowments, and properties.

However, they remain either affiliated, or federated with the overarching university, with the overarching university being the institution that formally grants the degrees.

For example, Trinity College was once an independent institution, but later became federated with the University of Toronto. Several centralized universities in Canada have mimicked the collegiate university model; although constituent colleges in a centralized university remains under the authority of the central administration.

Centralized universities that have adopted the collegiate model to a degree includes the University of British Columbia, with Green College and St.

Occasionally, "college" refers to a subject specific faculty within a university that, while distinct, are neither federated nor affiliated —College of Education, College of Medicine, College of Dentistry, College of Biological Science [10] among others.

The institution is a full-fledged university, with the authority to issue graduate degrees, although it continues to word the term college in its name.

A number of post-secondary art schools in Canada formerly used the word college in their names, despite formally being universities.

However, most of these institutions were renamed, or re-branded in the early 21st century, omitting the word college from its name.

The word college continues to be used in the names public separate secondary schools in Ontario. Public secular school boards in Ontario also refer to their secondary schools as collegiate institutes.

However, usage of the word collegiate institute varies between school boards. Collegiate institute is the predominant name for secondary schools in Lakehead District School Board , and Toronto District School Board , although most school boards in Ontario use collegiate institute alongside high school , and secondary school in the names of their institutions.

Similarly, secondary schools in Regina, and Saskatoon are referred to as Collegiate. In Chile, the term "college" is usually used in the name of some bilingual schools, like Santiago College , Saint George's College etc.

It has the same system as the American universities, it combines majors and minors. And it let the students continue a higher degree in the same university once finished.

In Hong Kong, the term 'college' is used by tertiary institutions as either part of their names or to refer to a constituent part of the university, such as the colleges in the collegiate The Chinese University of Hong Kong ; or to a residence hall of a university, such as St.

John's College, University of Hong Kong. Many older secondary schools have the term 'college' as part of their names. The modern system of education was heavily influenced by the British starting in In India, the term "college" is commonly reserved for institutions that offer high school diplomas at year 12 " Junior College ", similar to American high schools , and those that offer the bachelor's degree ; some colleges, however, offer programmes up to PhD level.

Generally, colleges are located in different parts of a state and all of them are affiliated to a regional university.

The colleges offer programmes leading to degrees of that university. Colleges may be either Autonomous or non-autonomous. Autonomous Colleges are empowered to establish their own syllabus, and conduct and assess their own examinations; in non-autonomous colleges, examinations are conducted by the university, at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation.

There are several hundred universities and each university has affiliated colleges, often a large number. The first liberal arts and sciences college in India was C.

The first college for the study of Christian theology and ecumenical enquiry was Serampore College The first commerce and economics college in India was Sydenham College , Mumbai In Ireland the term "college" is normally used to describe an institution of tertiary education.

University students often say they attend "college" rather than "university". Until , no university provided teaching or research directly; they were formally offered by a constituent college of the university.

There are number of secondary education institutions that traditionally used the word "college" in their names: these are either older, private schools such as Belvedere College , Gonzaga College , Castleknock College , and St.

Michael's College or what were formerly a particular kind of secondary school. These secondary schools, formerly known as "technical colleges," were renamed "community colleges," but remain secondary schools.

The country's only ancient university is the University of Dublin. Created during the reign of Elizabeth I , it is modelled on the collegiate universities of Cambridge and Oxford.

However, only one constituent college was ever founded, hence the curious position of Trinity College Dublin today; although both are usually considered one and the same, the university and college are completely distinct corporate entities with separate and parallel governing structures.

Among more modern foundations, the National University of Ireland , founded in , consisted of constituent colleges and recognised colleges until The former are now referred to as constituent universities — institutions that are essentially universities in their own right.

The National University can trace its existence back to and the creation of the Queen's University of Ireland and the creation of the Catholic University of Ireland in From , the degree awarding roles of these two universities was taken over by the Royal University of Ireland , which remained until the creation of the National University in and Queen's University Belfast.

These institutions offered university level academic degrees and research from the start of their existence and were awarded university status in in recognition of this.

Third level technical education in the state has been carried out in the Institutes of Technology , which were established from the s as Regional Technical Colleges.

These institutions have delegated authority which entitles them to give degrees and diplomas from Quality and Qualifications Ireland QQI in their own names.

A number of private colleges exist such as Dublin Business School , providing undergraduate and postgraduate courses validated by QQI and in some cases by other universities.

Other types of college include colleges of education, such as the Church of Ireland College of Education. These are specialist institutions, often linked to a university, which provide both undergraduate and postgraduate academic degrees for people who want to train as teachers.

A number of state-funded further education colleges exist — which offer vocational education and training in a range of areas from business studies and information and communications technology to sports injury therapy.

There are numerous private colleges particularly in Dublin and Limerick [ citation needed ] which offer both further and higher education qualifications.

In Israel, any non university higher-learning facility is called a college. There are also over twenty teacher training colleges or seminaries, most of which may award only a Bachelor of Education B.

Such schools are usually run by the Roman Catholic church or missionaries in Macau. HBO graduates can be awarded two titles, which are Baccalaureus bc.

At a WO institution, many more bachelor's and master's titles can be awarded. The PhD title is a research degree awarded upon completion and defense of a doctoral thesis.

The constituent colleges of the former University of New Zealand such as Canterbury University College have become independent universities.

Some halls of residence associated with New Zealand universities retain the name of "college", particularly at the University of Otago which although brought under the umbrella of the University of New Zealand, already possessed university status and degree awarding powers.

The institutions formerly known as "Teacher-training colleges" now style themselves "College of education". Some universities, such as the University of Canterbury , have divided their university into constituent administrative "Colleges" — the College of Arts containing departments that teach Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, College of Science containing Science departments, and so on.

This is largely modelled on the Cambridge model, discussed above. In some parts of the country, secondary school is often referred to as college and the term is used interchangeably with high school.

This sometimes confuses people from other parts of New Zealand. But in all parts of the country many secondary schools have "College" in their name, such as Rangitoto College , New Zealand's largest secondary.

A state college may not have the word "college" on its name, but may have several component colleges, or departments.

Usually, the term "college" is also thought of as a hierarchical demarcation between the term "university", and quite a number of colleges seek to be recognized as universities as a sign of improvement in academic standards Colegio de San Juan de Letran , San Beda College , and increase in the diversity of the offered degree programs called "courses".

For private colleges, this may be done through a survey and evaluation by the Commission on Higher Education and accrediting organizations, as was the case of Urios College which is now the Fr.

Saturnino Urios University. For state colleges, it is usually done by a legislation by the Congress or Senate. In common usage, "going to college" simply means attending school for an undergraduate degree, whether it's from an institution recognized as a college or a university.

When it comes to referring to the level of education, college is the term more used to be synonymous to tertiary or higher education.

The term "college" in Singapore is generally only used for pre-university educational institutions called "Junior Colleges", which provide the final two years of secondary education equivalent to sixth form in British terms or grades 11—12 in the American system.

The term "university" is used to describe higher-education institutions offering locally conferred degrees.

Institutions offering diplomas are called " polytechnics ", while other institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so forth. Although the term "college" is hardly used in any context at any university in South Africa, some non-university tertiary institutions call themselves colleges.

These include teacher training colleges, business colleges and wildlife management colleges. There are several professional and vocational institutions that offer post-secondary education without granting degrees that are referred to as "colleges".

Further education FE colleges and sixth form colleges are institutions providing further education to students over Some of these also provide higher education courses see below.

Eton College and Winchester College. In higher education, a college is normally a provider that does not hold university status, although it can also refer to a constituent part of a collegiate or federal university or a grouping of academic faculties or departments within a university.

Traditionally the distinction between colleges and universities was that colleges did not award degrees while universities did, but this is no longer the case with NCG having gained taught degree awarding powers the same as some universities on behalf of its colleges, [26] and many of the colleges of the University of London holding full degree awarding powers and being effectively universities.

Most colleges, however, do not hold their own degree awarding powers and continue to offer higher education courses that are validated by universities or other institutions that can award degrees.

Overall, this means over two thirds of state-supported higher education providers in England are colleges of one form or another.

Colleges within universities vary immensely in their responsibilities. The large constituent colleges of the University of London are effectively universities in their own right; colleges in some universities, including those of the University of the Arts London and smaller colleges of the University of London , run their own degree courses but do not award degrees; those at the University of Roehampton provide accommodation and pastoral care as well as delivering the teaching on university courses; those at Oxford and Cambridge deliver some teaching on university courses as well as providing accommodation and pastoral care; and those in Durham , Kent , Lancaster and York provide accommodation and pastoral care but do not normally participate in formal teaching.

The legal status of these colleges also varies widely, with University of London colleges being independent corporations and recognised bodies, Oxbridge colleges, colleges of the University of the Highlands and Islands UHI and some Durham colleges being independent corporations and listed bodies, most Durham colleges being owned by the university but still listed bodies, and those of other collegiate universities not having formal recognition.

When applying for undergraduate courses through UCAS , University of London colleges are treated as independent providers, colleges of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham and UHI are treated as locations within the universities that can be selected by specifying a 'campus code' in addition to selecting the university, and colleges of other universities are not recognised.

A university college is an independent institution with the power to award taught degrees, but which has not been granted university status. University College is a protected title that can only be used with permission, although note that University College London , University College, Oxford and University College, Durham are colleges within their respective universities and not university colleges in the case of UCL holding full degree awarding powers that set it above a university college , while University College Birmingham is a university in its own right and also not a university college.

In the United States, there are over colleges and universities. Americans "go to college" after high school , regardless of whether the specific institution is formally a college or a university.

Some students choose to dual-enroll, by taking college classes while still in high school. The word and its derivatives are the standard terms used to describe the institutions and experiences associated with American post-secondary undergraduate education.

Students must pay for college before taking classes. But the vote in the Electoral College was to , with seven electors defecting , the most ever.

Warren said while campaigning in March. In addition, 15 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws to award their electoral votes to the winner of the national popular vote.

The agreement would go into effect once states representing a majority of electoral votes join the interstate agreement. Colorado joined the group in March.

Even still, its secretary of state, Jena Griswold, a Democrat, opposed the appeals court ruling this week.

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Well, maybe a Nothing grosser. And while it's inevitable that a bathroom is going to get dirty, it's not inevitable that it will get gross.

First, the daily yuck: Do people need to rinse the sink out from toothpaste, say, or from bits of hair from shaving after they use it?

Do people need to clean their hair out of the drain every time they shower? Second, think about the short-term yuck: If you live off campus and don't have cleaning services coming every week, how often does the bathroom need to get cleaned?

Who is going to do it? What happens if they don't? Is cleaning it once per week not enough? Third, think about the longer-term yuck: Who washes things like bath mats and hand towels?

What about cleaning the shower curtain? How often do all of these things need to be cleaned, and by whom? Issue 3: Guests. Most people don't mind guests all that much But it's no fun to go wandering into your own bathroom, half asleep, only to find a stranger — particularly one of a different gender — there unexpectedly.

Having a conversation and agreement about guests is especially important to do in advance of any trouble. Talk with your roommate s about a "guest policy" of sorts.

Clearly, if someone has a guest over, that guest is going to need to use the bathroom at some point, so get some rules in order.

If a guest is in the bathroom, how should other people be notified? Is it okay for a guest not just to use the bathroom but to do other things, like use the shower?

What if someone has a frequent guest; can they leave their things in the bathroom? What if the person who has the guest isn't in the apartment or room?

Is the guest allowed to just stay and hang out and, consequently, use the bathroom? Issue 4: Sharing. Darnit, you ran out of toothpaste again.

Will your roommate even notice if you just take a little squirt this morning? What about a little shampoo? And conditioner?

And moisturizer? And shaving cream? And maybe sharing a little mascara, too? Sharing here and there can be part of having a healthy relationship with the people you live with, but it can also lead to major problems.

Be clear with your roommates about when and if it's okay to share. Do you want to be asked in advance first?

Are some things okay to share from time to time, only in an emergency, or never? Make sure to be clear, too; you may not even consider the idea that your roommate would "share" your deodorant one day, but they may not think twice before doing it.

Make sure to talk, too, about general use items — like the hand soap, toilet paper, and bathroom cleaners — and how and when those should be replaced as well as by whom.

Share Flipboard Email. Kelci Lynn Lucier. More empirically based models of voting yield results that seem to favor larger states less.

In practice, the winner-take-all manner of allocating a state's electors generally decreases the importance of minor parties. The United States of America is a federal coalition that consists of component states.

Proponents of the current system argue the collective opinion of even a small state merits attention at the federal level greater than that given to a small, though numerically equivalent, portion of a very populous state.

The system also allows each state the freedom, within constitutional bounds, to design its own laws on voting and enfranchisement without an undue incentive to maximize the number of votes cast.

For many years early in the nation's history, up until the Jacksonian Era , many states appointed their electors by a vote of the state legislature , and proponents argue that, in the end, the election of the president must still come down to the decisions of each state, or the federal nature of the United States will give way to a single massive, centralized government.

In his book A More Perfect Constitution , Professor Larry Sabato elaborated on this advantage of the Electoral College, arguing to "mend it, don't end it," in part because of its usefulness in forcing candidates to pay attention to lightly populated states and reinforcing the role of states in federalism.

Instead of decreasing the power of minority groups by depressing voter turnout, proponents argue that by making the votes of a given state an all-or-nothing affair, minority groups can provide the critical edge that allows a candidate to win.

This encourages candidates to court a wide variety of such minorities and advocacy groups. Proponents of the Electoral College see its negative effect on third parties as beneficial.

They argue that the two party system has provided stability because it encourages a delayed adjustment during times of rapid political and cultural change.

They believe it protects the most powerful office in the country from control by what these proponents view as regional minorities until they can moderate their views to win broad, long-term support across the nation.

Advocates of a national popular vote for president suggest that this effect would also be true in popular vote elections. According to this argument, the fact the Electoral College is made up of real people instead of mere numbers allows for human judgment and flexibility to make a decision, if it happens that a candidate dies or becomes legally disabled around the time of the election.

Advocates of the current system argue that human electors would be in a better position to choose a suitable replacement than the general voting public.

According to this view, electors could act decisively during the critical time interval between when ballot choices become fixed in state ballots [] until mid-December when the electors formally cast their ballots.

In the election of , vice president Sherman died shortly before the election when it was too late for states to remove his name from their ballots; accordingly, Sherman was listed posthumously, but the eight electoral votes that Sherman would have received were cast instead for Nicholas Murray Butler.

Some supporters of the Electoral College note that it isolates the impact of any election fraud, or other such problems, to the state where it occurs.

It prevents instances where a party dominant in one state may dishonestly inflate the votes for a candidate and thereby affect the election outcome.

For instance, recounts occur only on a state-by-state basis, not nationwide. Most polls since have shown that a majority of Americans favor the president and vice president being elected by the nationwide popular vote, instead of by the Electoral College, [] [] though polls taken since have shown an increase in support for keeping the Electoral College.

The closest the United States has come to abolishing the Electoral College occurred during the 91st Congress — However, Nixon had received only , more popular votes than Humphrey, Representative Emanuel Celler D—New York , chairman of the House Judiciary Committee , responded to public concerns over the disparity between the popular vote and electoral vote by introducing House Joint Resolution , a proposed Constitutional amendment that would have replaced the Electoral College with a simpler plurality system based on the national popular vote.

The word "pair" was defined as "two persons who shall have consented to the joining of their names as candidates for the offices of president and vice president.

On October 8, , the New York Times reported that 30 state legislatures were "either certain or likely to approve a constitutional amendment embodying the direct election plan if it passes its final Congressional test in the Senate.

The paper also reported that six other states had yet to state a preference, six were leaning toward opposition, and eight were solidly opposed.

On August 14, , the Senate Judiciary Committee sent its report advocating passage of the proposal to the full Senate.

The Judiciary Committee had approved the proposal by a vote of 11 to 6. Senator Bayh indicated that supporters of the measure were about a dozen votes shy from the 67 needed for the proposal to pass the full Senate.

On September 8, , the Senate commenced openly debating the proposal, [] and the proposal was quickly filibustered.

The lead objectors to the proposal were mostly Southern senators and conservatives from small states, both Democrats and Republicans, who argued that abolishing the Electoral College would reduce their states' political influence.

Thereafter, the Senate majority leader, Mike Mansfield of Montana, moved to lay the proposal aside so the Senate could attend to other business.

On March 22, , President Jimmy Carter wrote a letter of reform to Congress that also included his expression of essentially abolishing the Electoral College.

The letter read in part:. My fourth recommendation is that the Congress adopt a Constitutional amendment to provide for direct popular election of the President.

Such an amendment, which would abolish the Electoral College, will ensure that the candidate chosen by the voters actually becomes President.

Under the Electoral College, it is always possible that the winner of the popular vote will not be elected. This has already happened in three elections, , , and In the last election, the result could have been changed by a small shift of votes in Ohio and Hawaii, despite a popular vote difference of 1.

I do not recommend a Constitutional amendment lightly. I think the amendment process must be reserved for an issue of overriding governmental significance.

But the method by which we elect our President is such an issue. I will not be proposing a specific direct election amendment.

I prefer to allow the Congress to proceed with its work without the interruption of a new proposal. President Carter's proposed program for the reform of the Electoral College was very liberal for a modern president during this time, and in some aspects of the package, it went beyond original expectations.

Newspaper reaction to Carter's proposal ranged from some editorials praising the proposal to other editorials, like that in the Chicago Tribune , criticizing the president for proposing the end of the Electoral College.

Bingham D-New York highlighted the danger of the "flawed, outdated mechanism of the Electoral College" by underscoring how a shift of fewer than 10, votes in two key states would have led to President Gerald Ford being reelected despite Jimmy Carter's nationwide 1.

Since January 3, , joint resolutions have been made proposing constitutional amendments that would replace the Electoral College with the popular election of the president and vice president.

The compact will not go into effect until the number of states agreeing to the compact form a majority at least of all electors. The compact is based on the current rule in Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution, which gives each state legislature the plenary power to determine how it chooses its electors.

Some scholars have suggested that Article I, Section 10, Clause 3 of the Constitution requires congressional consent before the compact could be enforceable; [] thus, any attempted implementation of the compact without congressional consent could face court challenges to its constitutionality.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Electoral College United States. This article is about the electoral college of the United States.

For electoral colleges in general, see Electoral college. For other uses and regions, see Electoral college disambiguation. United States.

Federal government. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Political parties.

Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green. Other countries. Further information: United States congressional apportionment.

Main article: Faithless elector. Further information: Contingent election. See also: Electoral vote changes between United States presidential elections.

See also: List of United States presidential elections in which the winner lost the popular vote. Main article: Swing state.

See also: Duverger's law and Causes of a two-party system. Main article: Two party system. May 15, CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D. Retrieved July 29, The Heritage Guide to The Constitution.

The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved August 6, Annenberg Classroom. March 29, Retrieved July 30, PRI's The World. Retrieved September 5, USA Today.

Retrieved September 6, August 27, Retrieved November 7, July 7, Retrieved July 7, There are 33 states plus the District of Columbia that require electors to vote for a pledged candidate.

Most of those states 16 plus DC nonetheless do not provide for any penalty or any mechanism to prevent the deviant vote from counting as cast.

Congressional Research Service. November 15, October 6, Retrieved January 6, Retrieved January 5, So Why Does It Endure? The New York Times.

Harvard Political Review. The Washington Post. Avalon Project. Retrieved April 13, National Constitution Center. November 28, Retrieved April 9, Ashland University.

Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of The Norton Library. The Federalist Papers: No. Electoral College: Frequently Asked Questions".

September 19, Harvard Journal on Legislation. Federalist No. Hamilton so strongly believed this was to be done district by district, and when states began doing otherwise, he proposed a constitutional amendment to mandate the district system Hamilton, Draft of a Constitutional Amendment.

Madison concurred, "The district mode was mostly, if not exclusively in view when the Constitution was framed and adopted. The Avalon Project.

Published Agreeably to Resolve of 16th January, Russell, ; [repr". Boston Book Company. January 1, — via Google Books.

Archived from the original on May 25, Electoral College. National Archives. Retrieved April 19, Encyclopedia Britannica. Congressional Quarterly, Inc.

McMaster , No. Unlike the votes taken in the Electoral College, from to , the U. Senate sustained parity between free-soil and slave-holding states.

But subsequently, an unbroken chain of free-soil states, including Iowa, Wisconsin, California, Minnesota, Oregon and Kansas, were admitted before the outbreak of the Civil War.

Constitution Transcript , held at the U. National Archives, viewed online on February 5, Humes, Elaine K. Swift, Richard M. Valley, Kenneth Finegold, and Evelyn C.

Brady and Mathew D. McCubbins, eds. Humes, et al. The continuing, uninterrupted northern free-soil majority margin in the Electoral College would have been significantly smaller had slaves been counter-factually counted as whole persons, but still the South would have been a minority in the Electoral College over these sixty-eight years.

Negro President: Jefferson and the Slave Power. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved May 20, Virginia had Pennsylvania had Abbeville Institute.

Presidential Election "Events": to the present". The Green Papers. Washington Post. Retrieved November 21, Retrieved August 2, Retrieved November 22, Here is a basic guide to the electoral college system".

Raw Story. October 25, Cleveland Plain Dealer reprint at Edison Research. Archived from the original PDF on July 10, Retrieved January 3, Green Papers.

Kozlowski Infobase Publishing. Takoma Park, Maryland: FairVote. Retrieved August 1, National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved January 22, Retrieved August 26, Electoral College — For State Officials".

Archived from the original on October 25, NBC News. Retrieved April 5, Fair Vote. Retrieved July 25, Retrieved March 19, Alexander Hamilton.

New York: Penguin, Constitution Daily. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: National Constitution Center. Retrieved March 17, Retrieved November 19, Retrieved July 6, McKnight Hein Publishing.

Paige Whitaker and Thomas H. Neale, January 16, ". Archived from the original on June 28, Yale University Press. New Haven, CT: December 12, Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved June 8, Census Bureau.

December 21, Archived from the original PDF on January 24, Retrieved December 21, Each state's number of electoral votes is equal to its total congressional representation its number of Representatives plus its two Senators.

Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U. Elections 2nd ed. Princeton Press. Princeton University Press. Archived from the original PDF on December 2, Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved August 14, March 9, Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved January 24, Archived from the original PDF on May 1, Pittsburgh Post Gazette.

Cato Institute, viewed November 22, President Elect. September 5, Archived from the original on September 21, Sabato's Crystal Ball. Lansing State Journal.

Omaha World Herald. KPTM Fox Archived from the original on May 16, Retrieved November 4, Associated Press.

Retrieved September 8, Bold Nebraska. Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved August 9, Detroit Free Press. Governing Magazine.

Archived from the original on November 29, National Journal. Archived from the original on January 8, In Bugh, Gary ed. Electoral College Reform: Challenges and Possibilities.

November 2, — via The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 14, October 22, Retrieved October 23, Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved September 14, Retrieved November 10, The Washington Examiner.

The Nation. November 7, Brookings Institution Policy Brief. Archived from the original on August 20, Archived from the original PDF on November 13, Los Angeles Times.

Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved November 8, Electoral college defenders offer a range of arguments, from the openly anti-democratic direct election equals mob rule , to the nostalgic we've always done it this way , to the opportunistic your little state will get ignored!

More vote-counting means more controversies! The Electoral College protects hurricane victims! But none of those arguments overcome this one: One person, one vote.

And it's going to get worse". Retrieved November 17, University of Dayton. Retrieved October 2, July 10, Retrieved July 24, November 12, Retrieved September 7, Houghton Mifflin Company.

Villanova Law Review. University of North Carolina. Statistical Science. Archived from the original on January 9, Wadsworth Publishing Company.

May Federal Election Commission. Walker Publishing Company. Gubernatorial Elections. Retrieved on Grant thumped him in the election Thomas Andrews Hendricks actually came in second in the election with 42 electoral votes despite not campaigning for the presidency Then Consider the Duke".

In , Horace Greeley, opposing Ulysses S. Grant, got zero electoral votes to Grant's , but five other candidates received from one to 42 votes each.

But Sherman died in office, less than a month before the election of Cornell University Department of Psychology. Archived from the original on March 3, National Popular Vote Inc.

Archived from the original on November 8, Gallup, Inc. CBS News. December 2, Pew Research Center. April 26, Retrieved April 15, Longley and Alan G.

April 30, September 12, October 1, October 8, August 15, September 9, See United States Senate website. September 30, Woolley, The American Presidency Project.

March 15, Retrieved August 18, Steve Cohen introduces constitutional amendment to abolish Electoral College".

The Washington Times. National Popular Vote. Windemere Sun. Retrieved July 14, Voting rights in the United States. First-past-the-post voting Gerrymandering Multiple non-transferable vote One man, one vote Ranked-choice voting in the U.

United States presidential elections. West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming. List of nominating conventions Brokered convention Convention bounce Superdelegate.

Results Summary Elections in which the winner lost the popular vote Electoral College margins Electoral College results by state Electoral vote changes between elections Electoral vote recipients Popular vote margins Contingent election Faithless elector Unpledged elector Voter turnout.

Campaign slogans Historical election polling Election Day Major party tickets Major party losers Presidential debates October surprise Red states and blue states Swing state Election recount Guam straw poll Vice presidential confirmations: House elections Senate elections Gubernatorial elections.

Politics of the United States by polity. Virgin Islands. United States Congress. Members and leaders. By length of service By shortness of service Freshmen Youngest members Non-voting members.

Resigned Appointed Switched parties. List Apportionment Gerrymandering. By length of service historically Current members by wealth From multiple states Died in office Killed or wounded in office Party switchers.

Powers, privileges, procedure, committees, history, and media. Salaries Franking Immunity. Gavels Mace of the House Seal of the Senate.

Capitol Complex Capitol Hill. Congressional staff Gov. Police Board Cap. Guide Service Cap. Guide Board Congr. Curator Historical Library.

Dirksen Hart Mountains and Clouds Russell. Capitol Hill. Authority control GND : Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections.

United States portal Other countries. A Pennsylvania elector holds a ballot for Donald Trump Trump's name is handwritten on the blank line.

December 19,

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