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Though they both mainly targeted the same groups of creatures—deer, horses, and cattle—Neanderthals mainly hunted the former and cave hyaenas the latter two.

Further, animal remains from Neanderthal caves indicate they preferred to hunt prime individuals, whereas cave hyaenas hunted weaker or younger prey, and cave hyaena caves have a higher abundance of carnivore remains.

There are several instances of Neanderthals practising cannibalism across their range. For the five cannibalised Neanderthals at the Grottes de Goyet , Belgium, there is evidence that the upper limbs were disarticulated , the lower limbs defleshed and also smashed likely to extract bone marrow , the chest cavity disemboweled , and the jaw dismembered.

There is also evidence that the butchers used some bones to retouch their tools. The processing of Neanderthal meat at Grottes de Goyet is similar to how they processed horse and reindeer.

These cannibalistic tendencies have been explained as either ritual defleshing , pre-burial defleshing to prevent scavengers or foul smell , an act of war, or simply for food.

Due to a small number of cases, and the higher number of cut marks seen on cannibalised individuals than animals indicating inexperience , cannibalism was probably not a very common practice, and it may have only been done in times of extreme food shortages as in some cases in recorded human history.

Neanderthal are known to have used ochre, a clay earth pigment. The discoverers of the latter two claim that pigment was applied to the exterior to make it match the naturally vibrant inside colouration.

Neanderthals are suggested to have used various bird parts as artistic mediums, specifically black feathers. They specifically noted the cinereous vulture , red-billed chough , kestrel , lesser kestrel , alpine chough , rook , jackdaw , and the white tailed eagle in Middle Palaeolithic sites.

Because the notches are more-or-less equidistant to each other, they are the first modified bird bones that cannot be explained by simple butchery, and for which the argument of design intent is based on direct evidence.

Discovered in , the so-called Mask of la Roche-Cotard , a mostly flat piece of flint with a bone pushed through a hole on the midsection—dated to 32, 40, or 75 thousand years ago [] —has been purported to resemble the upper half of a face, with the bone representing eyes.

From Lower and Middle Palaeolithic European and Middle Eastern sites, 63 stone objects with purported engravings have been reported from 27 different sites, of which 20 are on flint cortexes from 11 sites, 7 are on slabs from 7 sites, and 36 are on pebbles from 13 sites.

However, it is debated whether or not these were made with symbolic intent. This would indicate Neanderthal authorship, and similar iconography recorded in other Western European sites—such as Les Merveilles , France, and Cueva del Castillo , Spain—could potentially also have Neanderthal origins.

Neanderthals are known to have collected a variety of unusual objects—such as crystals or fossils—without any real functional purpose or any indication of damage caused by use.

It is unclear if these objects were simply picked up for their aesthetic qualities, or if some symbolic significance was applied to them.

These items are mainly quartz crystals , but also other minerals such as cerussite , iron pyrite , calcite , and galena. Despite the apparent thousand year stagnation in Neanderthal lithic innovation, [] there is evidence that Neanderthal technology was more sophisticated than was previously thought.

Neanderthals made stone tools, and are associated with the Mousterian industry. Levallois made it easier to control flake shape and size, and as a difficult-to-learn and unintuitive process, the Levallois technique may have been directly taught generation to generation rather than via purely observational learning.

The makers may have been a transitional culture between the Neanderthal Mousterian and the modern human Aurignacian.

In , two This indicates the technology was in use in this region for a long time. Since reindeer remains were the most abundant, the use of less abundant bovine ribs may indicate a specific preference for bovine ribs.

Potential lissoirs have also been reported from Grosse Grotte , Germany made of mammoth , and Grottes des Canalettes, France red deer. Other ambiguous transitional cultures include the Italian Uluzzian industry, [] and the Balkan Szeletian industry.

There is some debate if Neanderthals had long-ranged weapons. The Neanderthals in 10 coastal sites in Italy namely Grotta del Cavallo and Grotta dei Moscerini and Kalamakia Cave , Greece, are known to have crafted scrapers using smooth clam shells, and possibly hafted them to a wooden handle.

They probably chose this clam species because it has the most durable shell. At Grotta di Santa Lucia , Italy, in the Campanian volcanic arc , Neanderthals collected the porous volcanic pumice , which, for contemporary humans, was probably used for polishing points and needles.

The pumices are associated with shell tools. At Abri du Maras, France, twisted fibres and a 3-ply inner-bark-fibre cord fragment associated with Neanderthals show that they produced string and cordage, but it is unclear how widespread this technology was because the materials used to make them such as animal hair, hide, sinew, or plant fibres are biodegradable and preserve very poorly.

This technology could indicate at least a basic knowledge of weaving and knotting , which would have made possible the production of nets, containers, packaging, baskets, carrying devices, ties, straps, harnesses, clothes, shoes, beds, bedding, mats, flooring, roofing, walls, and snares, and would have been important in hafting, fishing, and seafaring.

At the Italian Poggetti Vecchi site, there is evidence they used fire to process boxwood branches to make digging sticks , a common implement in hunter-gatherer societies.

Neanderthals were able to create fire, [29] [] [30] and utilise complex spatial organisation of their settlements by zoning certain areas for specific tasks, possibly indicating intelligence levels equivalent with contemporary humans.

Certain areas in a settlement appear to have been used for specific activities, such as for knapping, butchering, hearths, and wood storage.

Many Neanderthal sites lack evidence for such activity perhaps due to natural degradation of the area over tens of thousands of years, such as by bear infiltration after abandonment of the settlement.

In a number of caves, evidence of hearths has been detected. Neanderthals likely considered air circulation when making hearths as a lack of proper ventilation for a single hearth can render a cave uninhabitable in several minutes.

In Grotte du Lazaret, France, smoke was probably naturally ventilated during the winter as the interior cave temperature was greater than the outside temperature; likewise, the cave was likely only inhabited in the winter.

One ring was 6. A team of Neanderthals was likely necessary to construct these, but the chamber's actual purpose is uncertain.

Building complex structures so deep in a cave is unprecedented in the archaeological record, and indicates sophisticated lighting and construction technology, and great familiarity with subterranean environments.

It appears to have contained hearths, cooking areas, and a flint workshop, and there are traces of woodworking. Upper Palaeolithic modern humans in the Russian plains are thought to have also made housing structures out of mammoth bones.

Neanderthal produced the adhesive birch bark tar , perhaps using plant-based resins for hafting. However, a study showed it can be made simply by burning birch bark on smooth vertical surfaces, such as a flat, inclined rock.

Since ambient temperatures were markedly lower than this—averaging during the Eemian interglacial Especially during extended periods of travelling such as a hunting trip , tailored footwear completely enwrapping the feet may have been necessary.

Nonetheless, as opposed to the bone sewing-needles and stitching awls assumed to have been in use by contemporary modern humans, the only known Neanderthal tools that could have been used to fashion clothes are hide scrapers , which could have made items similar to blankets or ponchos, and there is no direct evidence they could produce fitted clothes.

Remains of Middle Palaeolithic stone tools on Greek islands indicate early seafaring by Neanderthals in the Ionian Sea possibly starting as far back as — thousand years ago.

The oldest stone artefacts from Crete date to — thousand years ago, Cephalonia thousand years ago, and Zakynthos —35 thousand years ago.

If correct, they likely employed simple reed boats and made one-day crossings back and forth. Given high trauma rates and evidence of healing, Neanderthals appear to have been well-equipped at handling severe injuries.

Well-healed fractures on many bones indicate the setting of splints. Individuals with severe head and rib traumas which would have caused massive blood loss indicate they had some manner of dressing major wounds, and bandages could have been made from animal skin.

By-and-large, they appear to have avoided severe infections, indicating good long-term treatment of such wounds. Their knowledge of medicinal plants was comparable to that of contemporary humans.

In , cognitive scientist Philip Lieberman reconstructed the Neanderthal vocal tract as similar to that of a newborn and incapable of producing nasal sounds , because they had a large mouth and thus lacked the necessity for a descended larynx to fit the entire tongue inside the mouth.

However, the hyoid does not definitively provide insight into vocal tract anatomy. The degree of language complexity is difficult to establish, but given that Neanderthals achieved some technical and cultural complexity, and interbred with humans, it is reasonable to assume they were at least fairly articulate, comparable to modern humans.

A somewhat complex language—possibly using syntax—was likely necessary to survive in their harsh environment, with Neanderthals needing to communicate about topics such as locations, hunting and gathering, and tool-making techniques.

FOXP2 was present in Neanderthals, [] but not the gene's modern human variant. This could indicate a stronger ability in modern humans than in Neanderthals to express language.

Neuroscientist Andrey Vyshedskiy argued that Neanderthals lacked mental synthesis , the behaviorally modern human imaginative ability to craft effectively infinite ideas using a finite amount of words.

This is a hallmark of behavioural modernity , which he believed spontaneously appeared by about 70, years ago the "Upper Palaeolithic Revolution".

Claims that Neanderthals held funerals for their dead with symbolic meaning [] are heavily contested and speculative. The debate on Neanderthal funerals has been active since the discovery of La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 in a small, nonnatural hole in a cave in southwestern France, very controversially postulated to have been buried in a symbolic fashion.

The graves of children and infants, especially, are associated with grave goods such as artefacts and bones. A 10 month old from Amud Cave, Israel, was associated with a red deer mandible, likely purposefully placed there given other animal remains are now reduced to fragments.

Teshik-Tash 1 from Uzbekistan was associated with a circle of ibex horns, and a limestone slab argued to have supported the head.

It was once argued that the bones of the cave bear, particularly the skull, in some European caves were arranged in a specific order, indicating an ancient bear cult that killed bears and then ceremoniously arranged the bones.

This would be consistent with bear-related rituals of modern human Arctic hunter gatherers, but the alleged peculiarity of the arrangement could also be well-explained by natural causes, [62] [] and bias could be introduced as the existence of a bear cult would conform with the idea that totemism was the earliest religion, leading to undue extrapolation of evidence.

It was also once thought that Neanderthals ritually hunted, killed, and cannibalised other Neanderthals and used the skull as the focus of some ceremony.

He compared it to the victims of headhunters in Malaysia and Borneo, [] putting it forward as evidence of a skull cult. They then proposed some "Cult of the Sun Bird" where the golden eagle was a symbol of power.

The first Neanderthal genome sequence was published in , and strongly indicated interbreeding between Neanderthals and early modern humans.

By this measure, Neanderthals may have substantially increased in fitness. Due to the absence of Neanderthal-derived mtDNA which is passed on from mother to child in modern populations, [] [] [] it has been suggested that the progeny of Neanderthal females who mated with modern human males were either rare, absent, or sterile—that is to say, admixture stems from the progeny of Neanderthal males with modern human females.

According to linkage disequilibrium mapping , the last Neanderthal gene flow into the modern human genome occurred 86—37 thousand years ago, but most likely 65—47 thousand years ago.

Detractors of the interbreeding model argue that the genetic similarity is only a remnant of a common ancestor instead of interbreeding, [] though this is unlikely as it fails to explain why sub-Saharan Africans do not have Neanderthal DNA.

Hawks has argued that the genetic similarity to Neanderthals may be the result of both common ancestry and interbreeding, as opposed to just one or the other.

Though nDNA confirms that Neanderthals and Denisovans are more closely related to each other than they are to modern humans, Neanderthals and modern humans share a more recent maternally-transmitted mtDNA common ancestor, possibly due to interbreeding between Denisovans and some unknown human species.

Several Neanderthal-like fossils in Eurasia from a similar time period are often grouped into H. For the 90, year old Denisova 11 , it was found that her father was a Denisovan related to more recent inhabitants of the region, and her mother a Neanderthal related to more recent European Neanderthals at Vindija Cave, Croatia.

Given how few Denisovan bones are known, the discovery of a first generation hybrid indicates interbreeding was very common between these species, and Neanderthal migration across Eurasia likely occurred sometime after , years ago.

Whatever the cause of their extinction, Neanderthals were replaced by modern humans, indicated by near full replacement of Middle Palaeolithic Mousterian stone technology with modern human Upper Palaeolithic Aurignacian stone technology across Europe the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic Transition from 41—39 thousand years ago.

Further, the appearance of the Aurignacian south of the Ebro River has been dated to roughly 37, years ago, which has prompted the "Ebro Frontier" hypothesis which states that the river presented a geographic barrier preventing modern human immigration, and thus prolonging Neanderthal persistence.

Some Neanderthals in Gibraltar were dated to much later than this—such as Zafarraya 30, years ago [] and Gorham's Cave 28, years ago [] —which may be inaccurate as they were based on ambiguous artefacts instead of direct dating.

The earliest indication of Upper Palaeolithic modern human immigration into Europe is the Balkan Bohunician industry beginning 48, years ago, likely deriving from the Levantine Emiran industry, [] and the earliest bones in Europe date to roughly 45—43 thousand years ago in Bulgaria, [] Italy, [] and Britain.

DNA evidence indicates H. A reanalysis of , year old skull fragments from the Greek Apidima Cave assumed to have belonged to a Neanderthal concluded that they belonged to a modern human, and a Neanderthal skull dating to , years ago from the cave indicates H.

Neanderthals extinction is generally attributed to: extermination or competition by immigrating European early modern humans , [13] [14] [15] climatic events, [16] [17] [18] disease, or some combination.

After reconstructing them as apelike in , Boule concluded that Neanderthals were exterminated by invading modern humans.

At this point, the killer ape hypothesis was popularised, which states that modern humans evolved on a violent and war-driven path, killing off the comparatively peaceful Neanderthals while colonising Europe.

The mandible shows cut marks which are similar to the butchery seen in the reindeer bones also in the cave, which could indicate human predation of Neanderthals, human skinning of Neanderthal heads as trophies , or a pre-burial ritual involving tooth extraction.

Pre-burial ritual is better supported as other Aurignacian sites have evidence of post-mortem tooth extraction but for modern humans , perhaps to use as jewellery.

Shanidar 3 died from complications from a stab wound, likely originating from a light-weight, long-range projectile, a technology that possibly only H.

Though modern human expansion and Neanderthal contraction are correlated, this may instead be due to the competitive exclusion principle with modern humans outcompeting and outperforming Neanderthals rather than exterminating them.

The spread of grasslands and open steppe with increasingly colder climate possibly favoured humans over Neanderthals. Consequently, in especially lean times, any competition may have been devastating on relict Neanderthal communities.

Their ultimate extinction coincides with Heinrich event 4, a period of intense cold and dry climate causing their preferred forest landscape to give way to steppeland, and later Heinrich events are also associated with massive cultural turnovers where European human populations collapsed.

Anthropologist Pat Shipman suggested that the domestication of the wolf could have played a role in Neanderthals' extinction, or rather, a symbiosis with wolves long preceding domestication.

She claims that modern humans, about 50—45 thousand years ago, evolved the whites of the eyes to allow for more effective non-verbal communications with wolves, and this gave modern humans an advantage in hunting.

She also claims that Neanderthals did not have very prominent whites of the eyes, like the rest of the animal kingdom. Modern humans may have introduced African diseases to Neanderthals, contributing to their extinction.

Lacking immunity, compounded by an already low population, first contact was potentially devastating to the Neanderthal population, and low genetic diversity could have also rendered fewer Neanderthals naturally immune to these new diseases "differential pathogen resistance" hypothesis.

However, compared to modern humans, Neanderthals had a similar or higher genetic diversity for 12 major histocompatibility complex MHC genes associated with the adaptive immune system , casting doubt on this model.

Low population and inbreeding depression may have caused maladaptive birth defects, which could have contributed to their decline mutational meltdown.

In lateth-century New Guinea, due to cannibalistic funerary practices, the Fore people were decimated by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies , specifically kuru , a highly virulent disease spread by ingestion of prions found in brain tissue.

However, individuals with the variant of the PRNP gene were naturally immune to the prions. Studying this gene led to the discovery that the variant was widespread among all modern humans, which could indicate widespread cannibalism at some point in human prehistory.

Because Neanderthals are known to have practised cannibalism to an extent and to have co-existed with modern humans, British palaeoanthropologist Simon Underdown speculated that modern humans transmitted a kuru-like spongiform disease to Neanderthals, and, because the variant appears to have been absent in Neanderthals, it quickly killed them off.

Neanderthals have been portrayed in popular culture including appearances in literature, visual media, and comedy. The " caveman " archetype often mocks Neanderthals, and depicts them as primitive, hunchbacked, knuckle-dragging, club wielding, grunting, anti-social characters driven solely by animal instinct.

In literature, they are sometimes depicted as brutish or monstrous, such as in H. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the valley in Germany, see Neandertal valley.

For the single by Hotlegs, see Neanderthal Man song. Eurasian species or subspecies of archaic human. Temporal range: Middle — Late Pleistocene 0.

King , See also: Human taxonomy. Stage 1: early pre-Neanderthal, possibly H. Stage 2: archaic Neanderthal, possibly H.

Stage 3: early Neanderthal Saccopastore I , , years ago. The accretion model []. Main article: Neanderthal anatomy. Comparisons of a human left and a Neanderthal right skull at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.

Main article: Neanderthal behavior. See also: Pleistocene human diet. See also: Prehistoric art and Art of the Middle Palaeolithic. See also: Prehistoric music.

Mousterian projectile point. See also: Palaeolithic religion and History of religion. Engraved flint from a child's grave at Kiik-Koba , Crimea, Ukraine.

Main article: Archaic human admixture with modern humans. Further information: Neanderthal genetics.

Main article: Neanderthal extinction. Main article: Neanderthals in popular culture. The German noun is cognate with English dale.

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Rosto avermelhado, pele e boca seca. French palaeontologist Marcellin Boule authored several publications, among the first to establish palaeontology as a science, detailing the specimen, but reconstructed him as slouching, ape-like, and only remotely related to modern humans.

The 'discovery' of Piltdown Man a hoax , appearing much more similar to modern humans than Neanderthals, was used as evidence that multiple different and unrelated branches of primitive humans existed, and supported Boule's reconstruction of H.

Wells where they are depicted as monsters. By the middle of the century, based on the exposure of Piltdown Man as a hoax as well as reexamination of La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 who had osteoarthritis which caused slouching in life and new discoveries, the scientific community began to rework its understanding of Neanderthals.

Ideas such as Neanderthal behaviour, intelligence, and culture were being discussed, and a more humanlike image of them emerged.

In , American anthropologist Carleton Coon reconstructed a Neanderthal in a modern business suit and hat to emphasize that they would be, more or less, indistinguishable from modern humans had they survived into the present.

William Golding 's novel The Inheritors depicts Neanderthals as much more emotional and civilised. In modern day, Neanderthal reconstructions are often very humanlike.

Hybridisation between Neanderthals and early modern humans had been suggested early on, [] such as by English anthropologist Thomas Huxley in , [] Danish ethnographer Hans Peder Steensby in , [] and Coon in However, there was approximately 1 error for every letters base pairs based on the implausibly high mutation rate, probably due to the preservation of the sample.

In , British-American geneticist Graham Coop hypothesised that they instead found evidence of a different archaic human species interbreeding with modern humans, which was disproven in by the sequencing of a high-quality Neanderthal genome preserved in a toe bone from Denisova Cave, Siberia.

Denisovan from Denisova Cave. Denisovan from Baishiya Karst Cave. Neanderthals are hominids in the genus Homo , humans, and generally classified as a distinct species , H.

This would necessitate the classification of modern humans as H. A large part of the controversy stems from the vagueness of the term "species", as it is generally used to distinguish two genetically isolated populations, but admixture between modern humans and Neanderthals is known to have occurred.

In , geneticist Svante Pääbo described such " taxonomic wars" as unresolveable, "since there is no definition of species perfectly describing the case".

Neanderthals are thought to have been more closely related to Denisovans than to modern humans. This involved either introgression coming from an unknown archaic human into Denisovans, [] [84] [] [83] [] or introgression from an earlier unidentified modern human wave from Africa into Neanderthals.

It is largely thought that H. Ancestral and derived morphs could have lived concurrently. Two-phase argues a single major environmental event—such as the Saale glaciation —caused European H.

The date of around , years ago cites " H. The date of about , years ago uses H. Using the latter dates, the split had likely already occurred by the time hominins spread out across Europe, and unique Neanderthal features had begun evolving by — thousand years ago.

Pre- and early Neanderthals, living before the Eemian interglacial , years ago , are poorly known and come mostly from Western European sites.

From , years ago onwards, the quality of the fossil record increases dramatically with classic Neanderthals, who are recorded from Western, Central, Eastern, and Mediterranean Europe, [24] as well as Southwest , Central, and Northern Asia up to the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia.

Pre- and early Neanderthals, on the other hand, seem to have continuously occupied only France, Spain, and Italy, though some appear to have moved out of this "core-area" to form temporary settlements eastward though without leaving Europe.

Nonetheless, southwestern France has the highest density of sites for pre-, early, and classic Neanderthals. It is unknown how the rapidly fluctuating climate of the last glacial period Dansgaard—Oeschger events impacted Neanderthals, as warming periods would produce more favourable temperatures but encourage forest growth and deter megafauna, whereas frigid periods would produce the opposite.

It is possible their range expanded and contracted as the ice retreated and grew respectively to avoid permafrost areas, residing in certain refuge zones during glacial maxima.

Like modern humans, Neanderthals probably descended from a very small population with an effective population —the number of individuals who can bear children—of 3, to 12, approximately.

However, Neanderthals maintained this very low population, proliferating weakly harmful genes due to the reduced effectivity of natural selection.

Innovation increases with population, but if the population is too low, innovation will not occur very rapidly and the population will remain low.

This is consistent with the apparent , year stagnation in Neanderthal lithic technology. This high mortality rate was probably due to their high-stress environment.

Neanderthals had more robust and stockier builds than modern humans, [69] wider and barrel-shaped rib cages; wider pelvises; [] [25] and proportionally shorter forearms and forelegs.

This indicates a very robust build. The neck vertebrae of Neanderthals are longer and thicker than those of modern humans, lending to stability, possibly due to different head shape and size.

The Neanderthal chest was also more pronounced expanded front-to-back, or antero-posteriorly. The sacrum where the pelvis connects to the spine was more vertically inclined, and was placed lower in relation to the pelvis, causing the spine to be less curved exhibit less lordosis and to fold in on itself somewhat to be invaginated.

Such modifications to the spine would have enhanced side-to-side mediolateral flexion , better supporting the wider lower thorax. This condition may be normal for Homo , with the condition of a narrower thorax in modern humans being a unique characteristic.

Body proportions are usually cited as being "hyperarctic" as adaptations to the cold, because they are similar to those of human populations which developed in cold climates [] —the Neanderthal build is most similar to that of Inuit and Siberian Yupiks among modern humans [] —and shorter limbs equates to higher retention of body heat.

He explained their body proportions and greater muscle mass as adaptations to sprinting as opposed to the endurance-oriented modern human physique , [65] as persistence hunting may only be effective in hot climates where the hunter can run prey to the point of heat exhaustion hyperthermia.

They had longer heel bones , [] reducing their ability for endurance running, and their shorter limbs would have reduced moment arm at the limbs, allowing for greater rotational force at the wrists and ankles without extra exertion of the rotating muscles at the elbows and knees by increasing the speed at which the muscles contracted, causing faster acceleration.

Neanderthals had a reduced chin, sloping forehead, and large nose, which also started somewhat higher on the face than in modern humans. The Neanderthal skull is typically more elongated and less globular than that of modern humans, and features an occipital bun , [] or "chignon", a protrusion on the back of the skull, though it is within the range of variation for humans who have it.

It is caused by the cranial base and temporal bones being placed higher and more towards the front of the skull, and a flatter skullcap.

The large Neanderthal nose and paranasal sinuses have generally been explained as having warmed air as it entered the lungs and retained moisture "nasal radiator" hypothesis ; [] but sinuses are generally reduced in cold-adapted creatures, and it may have been that the large nose was caused instead by genetic drift.

Also, the sinuses are not grossly large, and are comparable in size to those of modern humans. Neanderthals featured a protrusion of the jaw prognathism , which was once cited as a response to a large bite force evidenced by heavy wearing of Neanderthal front teeth the "anterior dental loading" hypothesis , but similar wearing trends are seen in contemporary humans.

It could also have evolved to fit larger teeth in the jaw, which would better resist wear and abrasion, [] [] and the increased wear on the front teeth compared to the back teeth probably stems from repetitive use.

Neanderthal dental wear patterns are most similar to those of modern Inuit. Taurodontism was once thought to have been a distinguishing characteristic of Neanderthals which lent some mechanical advantage or stemmed from repetitive use, but was more likely simply a product of genetic drift.

In Neanderthals, the occipital lobe —operating vision—was much larger than in modern humans, and, similarly, they had larger eyes, probably as an adaptation to lower light conditions in Europe.

More brain tissue was devoted to bodily maintenance and control, and, consequently, the cognitive areas of the brain were proportionally smaller than in modern humans, [] including the cerebellum operating muscle memory , and possibly language, attention, working memory , social abilities, and thought , the parietal lobes visuospatial function and episodic memory , the temporal lobes language comprehension and associations with emotions , the orbitofrontal cortex decision making , and the olfactory bulb sense of smell.

The lack of sunlight most likely led to the proliferation of lighter skin in Neanderthals, [] though light skin in modern Europeans was not particularly prolific until perhaps the Bronze Age.

In modern humans, skin and hair colour is regulated by the melanocyte-stimulating hormone —which increases the proportion of eumelanin black pigment to phaeomelanin red pigment —which is encoded by the MC1R gene.

There are 5 known variants in modern humans of the gene which cause loss-of-function and are associated with light skin and hair colour, and another unknown variant in Neanderthals the RG variant which could be associated with pale skin and red hair.

Maximum natural lifespan and the timing of adulthood, menopause , and gestation were most likely very similar to modern humans.

Generally, models on Neanderthal caloric requirements report significantly higher intakes than those of modern humans because they typically assume Neanderthals had higher basal metabolic rates BMRs due to higher muscle mass, faster growth rate, and greater body heat production against the cold; [] [] [] and higher daily physical activity levels PALs due to greater daily travelling distances while foraging and no sexual division of labour.

Neanderthals may have been more active during dimmer light conditions rather than broad daylight because they lived in regions with reduced daytime hours, hunted large game such predators typically hunt at night to enhance ambush tactics , and had large eyes and visual processing neural centres.

Genetically, colour blindness which may enhance mesopic vision is typically correlated with northern-latitude populations, and the Neanderthals from Vindija Cave, Croatia, had some substitutions in the Opsin genes which could have influenced colour vision.

However, the functional implications of these substitutions are inconclusive. In , Trinkaus concluded that Neanderthals instead injured themselves in the same way as contemporary humans, such as by interpersonal violence.

There were no cases of hyaena attacks, though hyaenas still nonetheless probably attacked Neanderthals, at least opportunistically. Low population caused a low genetic diversity and probably inbreeding, which reduced the population's ability to filter out harmful mutations inbreeding depression.

However, it is unknown how this affected a single Neanderthal's genetic burden and, thus, if this caused a higher rate of birth defects than in modern humans.

Neanderthals were likely subject to several infectious diseases and parasites. Modern humans likely transmitted diseases to them; one possible candidate is the stomach bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

They were exposed on two distinct occasions either by eating or drinking contaminated food or water, or inhaling lead-laced smoke from a fire.

Neanderthals likely lived in more sparsely distributed groups than contemporary modern humans, [] but group size is thought to have averaged 10 to 30 individuals, similar to modern hunter-gatherers.

A Neanderthal child's teeth analysed in showed it was weaned after 2. Sites showing evidence of no more than three individuals may have represented nuclear families or temporary camping sites for special task groups such as a hunting party.

Some sites may have been used for over years. Evidence for long-term open-air settlements is known from the ' Ein Qashish site in Israel, [] [] and Moldova I in Ukraine.

Though Neanderthals appear to have had the ability to inhabit a range of environments—including plains and plateaux—open-air Neanderthals sites are generally interpreted as having been used as slaughtering and butchering grounds rather than living spaces.

Canadian ethnoarchaeologist Brian Hayden calculated a self-sustaining population which avoids inbreeding to consist of about — individuals, which would necessitate these bands to interact with 8—53 other bands, but more likely the more conservative estimate given low population density.

This suggests a patrilocal residence that a woman moved out of her group to live with her husband. Based on this, Hayden also speculated that macro-bands formed which functioned much like those of the low-density hunter gatherer societies of the Western Desert of Australia.

However, likely due to a significantly lower population, their model also reported that Neanderthals would not have been as efficient at maintaining long-distance networks as contemporary humans.

La Ferrassie is also located in one of the richest animal-migration routes of Pleistocene Europe. Genetic analysis indicates there were at least 3 distinct geographical groups—Western Europe, the Mediterranean coast, and east of the Caucasus—with some migration between these regions.

MBT may actually represent the interactions and fusion of the two different cultures. Nonetheless, over long periods of time, there is evidence of large-scale cross-continental migration.

Early specimens from Mezmaiskaya Cave in the Caucasus [] and Denisova Cave in the Siberian Altai Mountains [81] differ genetically from those found in Western Europe, whereas later specimens from these caves both have genetic profiles more similar to Western European Neanderthal specimens than to the earlier specimens from the same locations, suggesting long-range migration and population replacement over time.

It is sometimes suggested, since they were hunters of challenging big game and lived in small groups, there was no sexual division of labour as seen in modern hunter gatherer societies.

That is, men, women, and children all had to be involved in hunting, instead of men hunting with women and children foraging. However, with modern hunter gatherers, the higher the meat dependency, the higher the division of labour.

It is controversially proposed that some Neanderthals wore decorative clothing or jewellery—such as a leopard skin or raptor feathers—to display elevated status in the group.

Hayden postulated that the small number of Neanderthal graves found was because only high-ranking members would receive an elaborate burial, as is the case for some modern hunter gatherers.

Looking at Neanderthal skeletons recovered from several natural rock shelters, Trinkaus said that, although Neanderthals were recorded as bearing several trauma-related injuries, none of them had significant trauma to the legs that would debilitate movement.

He suggested that self worth in Neanderthal culture derived from contributing food to the group; a debilitating injury would remove this self-worth and result in near-immediate death, and individuals who could not keep up with the group while moving from cave to cave were left behind.

Neanderthals were once thought of as scavengers , but are now considered to have been apex predators. Contemporary humans, in contrast, seem to have used more complex food extraction strategies and generally had a more diverse diet.

Any food with high contents of other essential nutrients not provided by lean meat would have been vital components of their diet, such as fat-rich brains, [41] carbohydrate-rich and abundant underground storage organs including roots and tubers , [] or, like modern Inuit, the stomach contents of herbivorous prey items.

For meat, they appear to have fed predominantly on hoofed mammals , namely red deer and reindeer as these two were the most abundant game, [45] but also on other Pleistocene megafauna such as ibex , wild boar , aurochs , mammoth, straight-tusked elephant , woolly rhinoceros , and so on.

At Gibraltar sites, there are remains of different bird species, many ground-dwelling such as the common quail , corn crake , woodlark , and crested lark.

Neanderthal communities also included a wide array of plants in their diets. Neanderthals probably could employ a wide range of cooking techniques, such as roasting , and they may have been able to heat up or boil soup, stew, or animal stock.

These methods would have substantially increased fat consumption, which was a major nutritional requirement of communities with low carbohydrate and high protein intake.

At Grotte du Lazaret , France, a total of 23 red deer, 6 ibexes, 3 aurochs, and 1 roe deer appear to have been hunted in a single autumn hunting season, when strong male and female deer herds would group together for rut.

The entire carcasses seem to have been transported to the cave and then butchered. Because this is such a large amount of food to consume before spoilage, it is possible these Neanderthals were curing and preserving it before winter set in.

At , years old, it is the oldest potential evidence of food storage. At Cueva de los Aviones , Spain, the remains of edible, algae eating shellfish associated with the alga Jania rubens could indicate that, like some modern hunter gatherer societies, harvested shellfish were held in water-soaked algae to keep them alive and fresh until consumption.

Competition from large Ice Age predators was rather high. Cave lions likely targeted horses, large deer and wild cattle; and leopards primarily reindeer and roe deer; which heavily overlapped with Neanderthal diet.

To defend a kill against such ferocious predators, Neanderthals may have engaged in a group display of yelling, arm waving, or stone throwing; or quickly gathered meat and abandoned the kill.

However, at Grotte de Spy, Belgium, the remains of wolves, cave lions, and cave bears—which were all major predators of the time—indicate Neanderthals hunted their competitors to some extent.

Neanderthals and cave hyaenas may have exemplified niche differentiation , and actively avoided competing with each other.

Though they both mainly targeted the same groups of creatures—deer, horses, and cattle—Neanderthals mainly hunted the former and cave hyaenas the latter two.

Further, animal remains from Neanderthal caves indicate they preferred to hunt prime individuals, whereas cave hyaenas hunted weaker or younger prey, and cave hyaena caves have a higher abundance of carnivore remains.

There are several instances of Neanderthals practising cannibalism across their range. For the five cannibalised Neanderthals at the Grottes de Goyet , Belgium, there is evidence that the upper limbs were disarticulated , the lower limbs defleshed and also smashed likely to extract bone marrow , the chest cavity disemboweled , and the jaw dismembered.

There is also evidence that the butchers used some bones to retouch their tools. The processing of Neanderthal meat at Grottes de Goyet is similar to how they processed horse and reindeer.

These cannibalistic tendencies have been explained as either ritual defleshing , pre-burial defleshing to prevent scavengers or foul smell , an act of war, or simply for food.

Due to a small number of cases, and the higher number of cut marks seen on cannibalised individuals than animals indicating inexperience , cannibalism was probably not a very common practice, and it may have only been done in times of extreme food shortages as in some cases in recorded human history.

Neanderthal are known to have used ochre, a clay earth pigment. The discoverers of the latter two claim that pigment was applied to the exterior to make it match the naturally vibrant inside colouration.

Neanderthals are suggested to have used various bird parts as artistic mediums, specifically black feathers.

They specifically noted the cinereous vulture , red-billed chough , kestrel , lesser kestrel , alpine chough , rook , jackdaw , and the white tailed eagle in Middle Palaeolithic sites.

Because the notches are more-or-less equidistant to each other, they are the first modified bird bones that cannot be explained by simple butchery, and for which the argument of design intent is based on direct evidence.

Discovered in , the so-called Mask of la Roche-Cotard , a mostly flat piece of flint with a bone pushed through a hole on the midsection—dated to 32, 40, or 75 thousand years ago [] —has been purported to resemble the upper half of a face, with the bone representing eyes.

From Lower and Middle Palaeolithic European and Middle Eastern sites, 63 stone objects with purported engravings have been reported from 27 different sites, of which 20 are on flint cortexes from 11 sites, 7 are on slabs from 7 sites, and 36 are on pebbles from 13 sites.

However, it is debated whether or not these were made with symbolic intent. This would indicate Neanderthal authorship, and similar iconography recorded in other Western European sites—such as Les Merveilles , France, and Cueva del Castillo , Spain—could potentially also have Neanderthal origins.

Neanderthals are known to have collected a variety of unusual objects—such as crystals or fossils—without any real functional purpose or any indication of damage caused by use.

It is unclear if these objects were simply picked up for their aesthetic qualities, or if some symbolic significance was applied to them. These items are mainly quartz crystals , but also other minerals such as cerussite , iron pyrite , calcite , and galena.

Despite the apparent thousand year stagnation in Neanderthal lithic innovation, [] there is evidence that Neanderthal technology was more sophisticated than was previously thought.

Neanderthals made stone tools, and are associated with the Mousterian industry. Levallois made it easier to control flake shape and size, and as a difficult-to-learn and unintuitive process, the Levallois technique may have been directly taught generation to generation rather than via purely observational learning.

The makers may have been a transitional culture between the Neanderthal Mousterian and the modern human Aurignacian. In , two This indicates the technology was in use in this region for a long time.

Since reindeer remains were the most abundant, the use of less abundant bovine ribs may indicate a specific preference for bovine ribs.

Potential lissoirs have also been reported from Grosse Grotte , Germany made of mammoth , and Grottes des Canalettes, France red deer.

Other ambiguous transitional cultures include the Italian Uluzzian industry, [] and the Balkan Szeletian industry.

There is some debate if Neanderthals had long-ranged weapons. The Neanderthals in 10 coastal sites in Italy namely Grotta del Cavallo and Grotta dei Moscerini and Kalamakia Cave , Greece, are known to have crafted scrapers using smooth clam shells, and possibly hafted them to a wooden handle.

They probably chose this clam species because it has the most durable shell.

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